Down Syndrome Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Down syndrome which is also known as Down’s syndrome or trisomy 21 is a condition where newborn babies tend to possess an extra 21 chromosome. The condition is thus associated with delays in both mental and physical development. Such forms of disability tend to shorten the life of the kid. Nonetheless, a person can be suffering from this condition and still live a fit and enjoyable life. Technological advancements in the field of medicine, as well as the support from the family members and the community, have helped a great deal to ensure the survival of the victims of downs syndrome.

Causes of Down syndrome

Causes of Down syndrome

Trisomy 21 is a hereditary genetic disorder where the parents transfer their genes to the siblings. Chromosomes are the carriers for genes hence the ailing genes are carried easily carried from the parent to the sibling through the chromosomes. Each of the baby cells that forms should be having a total of 46 chromosomes represented by 23 chromosome pairs. The chromosomes come from both the mother and the father where each of the parents contributes half of the chromosomes in a cell. It happens that at times, one of the chromosomes does not properly separate in the offspring. When this happens, the kid will have three duplicated chromosomes. The partial chromosome that exists leads to 21 chromosomes. The extra chromosome is associated with disability in the brain and physical development. Down syndrome is one of the most common genetic disorder in the United States. It has been estimated by the NDSS that one among every seven hundred kids in the United States suffers from this condition.

Symptoms of Down syndrome.

If a mother is carrying a kid that has this type of condition, the probability that of early detection is very high when screened during pregnancy. This makes it necessary for the pregnant mother to undergo this kind of screening in order to determine if the fetus has Down syndrome or not thus helping prepare the mother. It is essential to note that pregnant mothers are not affected in any way for carrying an unborn baby that is suffering from this condition. Simply, the mother does not show any symptoms despite being a carrier of an ailing baby. Once the baby is born, there exist various characteristics that indicate the existence of this condition. Such babies will be having poor muscle tones, their ears are atypically shaped, they have upward slanted eyes, they also have a bulging tongue, a short neck, the head and the ears are small and their facial features are flat.

Most likely, the kid with this condition will be of an average size at birth but the rate of growth and development will be slower than that of the normal kids. Mild to moderate developmental disabilities are the most common characteristics of the people suffering from this condition. Due to the delay in social and mental abilities, the child could be a slow learner, could have a short attention span, suffer from poor judgment or even have impulsive behaviours

Down syndrome treatment

Unfortunately, there is no known cure for this condition which implies that the condition can only be managed. However, there exist educational as well as support programs that provide all the necessary information to support the families and the people living with this condition. Some of those educational programs are available in the NDSS platform. To ensure that the program succeeds, it is advocated for early intervention, especially during infancy. It is a requirement for qualified families to undergo therapy programs in order to equip them with as much information as possible on how to support the person suffering from Down syndrome. Therapists alongside special education teachers facilitate learning of the affected kid. These help the kid to learn cognitive abilities and languages, motor skills, self-help skills, social skills, and sensory skills among other essential skills in life. If knowledge is continuously imparted into the minds of such kids, they are able to meet age-related milestones despite their slow learning abilities.


People suffering from Down syndrome should not be neglected. This would worsen their condition and at some point lead to early deaths. Instead, they should be presented to the special education teachers and families who help them grow healthy in different stages of life. The family members of the kids suffering from this condition should also enrol in the programs that impart them with the knowledge on the best way to live with these kids. With love and care, the kids can grow to achieve their goals and live a happy life.